Wild card domain to localhost because development matters

I have an A record for *.local at my test domain to 127.0.0.1

For web development it is often required to have a domain name rather than a subfolder in localhost. A vhost for a (sub)domain is easy to set up on my local apache instllation. I can have even a free, valid SSL certificate for that vhost. Wait, what? How can I have a valid certificate for free for a local domain? I use Let’s encrypt with DNS chalange. Sure every time I have to update the certifacte I have to change a DNS txt record, but that is easy.

Another reason why I have a wild card record to 127.0.0.1 is that I can add as many vhosts for testing to apache and don’t have to add or change the DNS settings. Also I can use it on every computer as long as it can query the DNS server on the internet. I can even give my co worker my vhost config and it works without changes.

So *.local.apachehaus.de is free for development. But you can’t have a SSL certificate. If you want that, you can do the same trick with your domain.  Happy development.

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Back to the front. Bootstrap with composer

After a long while I had to something with frontend coding. I wanted to used composer like in my PHP projects. But how the heck to get the composer files to the public / frontend folder on each update? Luckily composer knows a post update command. So here we go

{
  "require": {
    "twbs/bootstrap": "4.3.1"
  },
  "scripts": {
    "post-update-cmd": [
      "rm -rf public/bootstrap",
      "cp -R vendor/twbs/bootstrap/dist public/bootstrap"
    ]
  }
}

with composer update the files will be copied to public/bootstrap. Easy!

Apache log as JSON

It is often required to parse the apache log, but the normal log format requires special handling like: https://github.com/JBlond/apache_log_parser
It is easier to have a direct output like JSON format.

LogFormat "{ \"time\":\"%t\", \"remoteIP\":\"%a\", \"host\":\"%V\", \"request\":\"%U\", \"query\":\"%q\", \"method\":\"%m\", \"status\":\"%>s\", \"userAgent\":\"%{User-agent}i\", \"referer\":\"%{Referer}i\" }" json

Now we have an easy to read log file.

Finding the right ciphers with 256 bit alias crypto wars part nine

Finding a good cipher for your web server is not an easy task. openssl ciphers -v ALL:COMPLEMENTOFALL lists all the available ciphers on your system.
What we don’t want

  • SSLv3 that is no longer secure.
  • 128 bit encryption is too weak
  • no encrytion cipther ;)
  • DSS cipher for key auth
  • DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA is no longer secure
  • TLSv1 no longer secure
  • PSK ( pre shared key) cipher
  • CAMELLIA
  • CBC cipher because of the BEAST attack
  • RSA because of FREAK and SMACK and ROBOT
  • Au=None
  • AESCCM it is also a Cipher Block Chaining (CBC)

That gives us:

openssl ciphers -v ALL:COMPLEMENTOFALL | grep -v "SSLv3" | grep -v "(128)" | grep -v "Enc=None" | \
 grep -v "Au=DSS" | grep -v "DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA" | grep -v "TLSv1 " | grep -v "Au=PSK" | grep -v "Kx=RSAPSK" | \
 grep -v "CAMELLIA" | grep -v "CBC" | grep -v "Au=RSA" | grep -v "Au=None" | grep -v "Enc=AESCCM"

now choose your poison.

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Global php composer install or update

Installing or updating a global installed composer can be a PITA if you don’t want to rely on the Linux distro
An easy way is:

curl -sS https://getcomposer.org/installer | sudo php -- --install-dir=/bin --filename=composer

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http/2.0 sslciphersuites with 256 bit alias crypto wars part eight TLSv1.3

Now with the release of Apache 2.4.37 it supports TLSv1.3 (with OpenSSL 1.1.1). Before is was possible to compile Apache against OpenSSL 1.1.1 but it had no effect compared to OpenSSL 1.1.0

There are some advantages using TLS 1.3. it comes with Zero Round Trip Time (0-RTT). Explained simply, with TLS 1.2, two round-trips had been needed to complete the TLS handshake. With TLSv1.3, it requires only one round-trip, which in turn cuts the encryption latency in half. It feels faster.

At the moment only Chrome and Firefox support TLS 1.3. But I think other browser will follow soon.

This requires Apache 2.4.37 or better and OpenSSL 1.1.1 or better. Note that there are now two different directives for SSLCipherSuite. Also new is that the names for the Ciphers for TLS 1.3 are  directly taken from the OpenSSL internal naming. This is different compared to the old way in apache. Only two ciphers that are allowed for TLSv1.3 support 256 bit encryption that is why I chose those.

Listen 443
<If "%{SERVER_PORT} == '443'">
<IfModule mod_headers.c>
Header always set Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=15553000; preload"
</IfModule>
</If>

ProtocolsHonorOrder On
Protocols h2c h2 http/1.1

TraceEnable Off

SSLUseStapling On
SSLSessionCache shmcb:/opt/apache2/logs/ssl_gcache_data(512000)
SSLStaplingCache shmcb:/opt/apache2/logs/ssl_stapling_data(512000)
SSLOptions +StrictRequire +StdEnvVars -ExportCertData
SSLProtocol -all +TLSv1.2 +TLSv1.3
SSLCompression Off
SSLHonorCipherOrder On
SSLCipherSuite SSL ECDHE-ECDSA-CHACHA20-POLY1305:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA384:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA:DHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA256:DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA
SSLCipherSuite TLSv1.3 TLS_CHACHA20_POLY1305_SHA256:TLS_AES_256_GCM_SHA384

SSLOpenSSLConfCmd DHParameters "/opt/apache2/conf/dh4096.pem"
SSLOpenSSLConfCmd ECDHParameters secp384r1
SSLOpenSSLConfCmd Curves sect571r1:sect571k1:secp521r1:sect409k1:sect409r1:secp384r1:sect283k1:sect283r1:secp256k1:prime256v1

H2Direct On

Sadly not OS Distributions support the last OpenSSL version or that TLv1.3 version has been backported or it has been patched, but apache shows still an older version number.

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http/2.0 sslciphersuites with 256 bit alias crypto wars part seven meeting Canada

Some weeks ago canada released a document for offical / public websites. No longer is TLS 1.0 nor TLS 1.1 allowed, but TLS 1.2 and TLS 1.3

Until this writing apache does not support TLS 1.3 yet, but it will come soon. This is because Apache does not work 100% with OpenSSL 1.1.1 yet. Soon it will do.

This brings an updated SSL config for apache webserver

 

<If "%{SERVER_PORT} == '443'">
<IfModule mod_headers.c>
Header always set Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=15553000; preload"
</IfModule>
</If>
SSLUseStapling On
SSLSessionCache shmcb:/opt/apache2/logs/ssl_gcache_data(512000)
SSLStaplingCache shmcb:/opt/apache2/logs/ssl_stapling_data(512000)
SSLOptions +StrictRequire +StdEnvVars -ExportCertData
SSLProtocol -all +TLSv1.2
SSLCompression Off
SSLHonorCipherOrder On
SSLCipherSuite ECDHE-ECDSA-CHACHA20-POLY1305:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA384:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA:DHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA256:DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA

SSLOpenSSLConfCmd ECDHParameters secp384r1
SSLOpenSSLConfCmd Curves sect571r1:sect571k1:secp521r1:sect409k1:sect409r1:secp384r1:sect283k1:sect283r1:secp256k1:prime256v1

H2Direct On

Some old clients including older Android versions are not longer supported, unless you install a newer browser like current Firefox.

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mysql split string by comma and count

mysql split string by comma and count

SELECT (LENGTH(`table`.`fieldname`) - LENGTH( REPLACE( `table`.`fieldname` , ',', '' ) ) + 1) AS `number` FROM `table` WHERE TRIM( IFNULL( `table`.`fieldname` , '' ) ) > ''

 

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git cheat sheet

Delete all local branches but master and the current one

git branch | grep -v "master" | grep -v ^* | xargs git branch -D;

what did I do? aka git last commit

git diff @~..@

What did I do the last week?

git log --stat --since='1 Week Ago' --graph --pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit --date=relative

git log only the relevant merges

git log --all --graph --decorate --oneline --simplify-by-decoration

show all untracked files

git ls-files --others --exclude-standard

last tag

describe --tags --abbrev=0

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htaccess if the host matches

It is a hassle to have different configurations in development and production. Often it is required to protect the new webpage with user and password. Publishing that config on production on the other hand would be fatal.
With Apache 2.4 that is pretty easy done

<If "%{HTTP_HOST} == 'stage.example.com'">
    AuthType basic
    AuthName "private"
    AuthUserFile /home/example/.htpasswd
    Require valid-user
</If>

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