Archive for category apache

http/2.0 sslciphersuites with 256 bit alias crypto wars part five A+ at SSL Test

At Qualys SLL Test labs tests I never had 100% for Key Exchange. Even adding a 4096 Diffie Hellman key did not do the trick.

Now I found adding

SSLOpenSSLConfCmd ECDHParameters secp384r1

to the config from Part 4 does the trick!

Now I can have all your bars on Qualys SSL Test at 100% without having an insane config no client can connect to.

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Fun with windows subsystem for linux Part 2

After upgrading Windows with the creators update I was able to do a sudo do-release-upgrade Now running xenial on windows subsystem for linux. Microsoft has improved a lot of things on bash on ubuntu on windows. I am now able to run PHP-cgi over mod_fcgid.

Maybe I should do a benchmarking to see how apache is performing compared to plain / native windows apache binaries.

Fun with windows subsystem for linux

After the install and the required reboot I was able to start bash. At first I was confused where to find the files from the home directory. It isn’t the one from windows itself.
Well I found it in AppData\Local\lxss . So each user has his / her own files.

Since I was able to find most stuff I wanted to know if I am able to compile httpd apache on it. I cloned and the build went smooth.
But apache didn’t start. Adding AcceptFilter http none and AcceptFilter https none helped. To get rid of the first error messages. But still apache wasn’t starting. Got the following error message.

[Tue Jan 24 22:31:33.590385 2017] [fcgid:emerg] [pid 1289:tid 140034843477824] (38)Function not implemented: mod_fcgid: Can't create shared memory for size 1200712 bytes

Okay, I disabled mod_fcgid and apache starts with /opt/apache2/bin/httpd -k start . Even running C:\Windows\System32\bash.exe ~ as Adminstrator did not solve to run fcgid.
I have to find out how to run mod_fcgid. I like to run PHP over fcgid.

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http/2.0 sslciphersuites with 256 bit alias crypto wars part four

To get rid of 128 bit encryption I had to disable


But then I got error messages from the popular browsers Server negotiated HTTP/2 with blacklisted suite. That is caused by DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA and ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA

With a lof of trial and error I came to the following

Listen 443
<If "%{SERVER_PORT} == '443'">
    <IfModule mod_headers.c>
        Header always set Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=15553000; preload"

ProtocolsHonorOrder On
Protocols h2c h2 http/1.1

SSLUseStapling off
SSLSessionCache shmcb:/opt/apache2/logs/ssl_gcache_data(512000)
SSLOptions +StrictRequire +StdEnvVars -ExportCertData
SSLProtocol -all +TLSv1 +TLSv1.1 +TLSv1.2
SSLCompression Off
SSLHonorCipherOrder On

However that has the negative effect that Android smaller than 7 and smaller than IE 11 can’t connect to the server. Also some older Firefox versions can’t connect. Depending on the application it might be worth to use such a config that doesn’t allow 128 bit encrypted connections.

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http/2.0 sslciphersuites alias crypto wars part three

It has been a while since I wrote part two of the crypto wars. Luckily Peter Mosmans has backported ChaCha20 and Poly1305 ciphers of OpenSSL 1.1.0 to 1.0.2 on github so that at least Chrome browser can use 256 bit encryption over HTTP/2

However on the httpd dev mailing list there are a few people already talking about making changes to APR and httpd so that it will compile with OpenSSL 1.1.0

The config for that is:

SSLProtocol -all +TLSv1 +TLSv1.1 +TLSv1.2 
SSLCompression Off 
SSLHonorCipherOrder On 

Why 256 bit? 128 bit hasn’t been cracked yet. The answer is that the collection of data and the data will decrypted when the time has come with a new generation of computers.

http/2.0 sslciphersuites alias crypto wars part two

With the upcoming mod_h2 the httpd apache module for HTTP/2.0 support there is a must to have ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256 in the SSLCipherSuite[1]. So SSLHonorCipherOrder Off can’t be used. That leaves the connection with only 128 bit encryption instead of 256 bit.

My hope is that the browsers will support soon a 256 Cipher



Apache 2.4 Disallow access to a certain location if a query string is set

Disallow access / require an IP to a certain location if a query string is set

 <LocationMatch ^/test.php>
        <If "%{QUERY_STRING} =~ /action=login/">
            Require ip

http://localhost/test.php works for everyone.

http://localhost/test.php?action=login works only for the ip

The “new” Apache 2.4 is different if you compare it to the 2.2 version of things. But once you understand it, it makes things easier and more readable. With 2.2 you would have needed more lines and mod_rewrite to get that working. See also Apache 2.4.x Better than rewriting

SSLCipherSuite alias crypto wars

Choosing the correct SSL cipher can be very difficult. Having the best encryption, still fast, having a “Modern compatibility”.


The current best solustion is with all browsers to have 256 bit encryption ( Chrome is currently the only browser that uses only 128 bit with this config).

— Edit —

Chrome might barf about a not modern config, hoever the encryption is not 256 in all cases. That is why I switched back to


Public Key Pinning php for httpd apache

Public Key Pinning Extension for HTTP (HPKP) on Apache2. HPKP tries to detect MITM attacks with valid certificates. The browser stores the hash code in the internal storage and verifies the public key against that sum.

Since it is not that easy to create a public pin under windows, here is a php script that does this

// openssl x509 -in example.crt -pubkey -noout | openssl rsa -pubin -outform der | openssl dgst -sha256 -binary | base64
    die('certificate not set');
$certificate = $argv['1'];
$public_key = openssl_get_publickey(file_get_contents($certificate));
$public_key_details = openssl_pkey_get_details($public_key);
$public_key_pem = $public_key_details['key'];

//Convert PEM to DER before SHA1'ing
$string_start = '-----BEGIN PUBLIC KEY-----';
$string_end = '-----END PUBLIC KEY-----';
$pem_trimed = substr($public_key_pem, (strpos($public_key_pem, $string_start)+strlen($string_start)), (strlen($public_key_pem) - strpos($public_key_pem, $string_end))*(-1));
$der = base64_decode($pem_trimed);

// 47DEQpj8HBSa+/TImW+5JCeuQeRkm5NMpJWZG3hSuFU= is an empty hash
echo PHP_EOL. "Header always set Public-Key-Pins 'pin-sha256=\"" . base64_encode(openssl_digest($der,'sha256',true)) ."\"; pin-sha256=\"bZ3qT75yZLagDEADBEEF0h3KAseeheXXJ5dliOfLB2A=\"; max-age=5184000'". PHP_EOL;

Add that config statement to correct SSL vhost


C:\>php public_pinning.php example.crt
<VirtualHost *:443>
Header always set Public-Key-Pins "pin-sha256=\"bZ3qT75yZLagDEADBEEF0h3KAseeheXXJ5dliOfLB2A=\"; "pin-sha256=\"sef3575yZLagDEADBEEF0h3KAseeheXXJ5dliOfLdfe=\"; max-age=5184000"

How to set up git over apache 2.4 on Windows

How to set up git apache 2.4 on Windows

At my first shot I was abl to glone the repo but I wasn’t able to push into the repo. Setting the LogLevel to debug showed: AH01215: Service not enabled: ‘receive-pack’: C:/Program Files (x86)/Git/libexec/git-core/git-http-backend.exe

Googling suggested to enable WebDAV. I doubted that but tried it anyway. Trail and error! It did not work about. The git client showed a 403 -> an access or authentication error.   The authentication triggered something in my mind. So I searched for the auth variable that git uses. Et voilà: Git uses the remote user in a different way.
The following set up is not secure, just for local testing. It requires  a http authentication ;)

<VirtualHost *:80>
    DocumentRoot "/Users/mario/work/git"
    CustomLog "C:\nul" common

    SetEnv GIT_PROJECT_ROOT /Users/mario/work/git

    ScriptAliasMatch "(?x)^/(.*/(HEAD | info/refs | objects/(info/[^/]+ | [0-9a-f]{2}/[0-9a-f]{38} | pack/pack-[0-9a-f]{40}.(pack|idx)) | git-(upload|receive)-pack))$" "C:/Program Files (x86)/git/libexec/git-core/git-http-backend.exe/$1"

    <Directory "/Users/mario/work/git">
        Options Indexes FollowSymLinks ExecCGI
        AllowOverride All
        Require all granted
    <Directory "C:/Program Files (x86)/git/libexec/git-core/">
        Options ExecCGI
    <Directory />
        Options Indexes FollowSymLinks ExecCGI
        Require all granted

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